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Cryptozoology, BioForteana, Zoological Oddities, Unusual Natural History

Cryptid Guide

African Cryptids

Lemurs: Unknown species, giant species
Reported from Madagascar
Heuvelmans 1986; Shuker 2000a; Shuker 1998d

Lemur: unknown miniature species
Reported from Tsingy de Bemaraha reserve, Madagascar
Shuker 1998d

Giant Fossa
Folklore from Madagascar
CZ list postings referring to Discover article

Anthropoid Ape: Chimpanzee (Kooloo-kamba, etc.)
Reported from Cameroons and Gabon
Heuvelmans 1986

Anthropoid Ape: Chimpanzee (Ufiti, etc.)
Reported from Malawi
Heuvelmans 1986

Anthropoid Ape: Pygmy Gorilla
Reported from coast of Gabon
Heuvelmans 1986 (Considered a mistake by Groves 1985)

Pygmies: Kimos
Reported from Madagascar
Heuvelmans 1986

Hairy or Long-haired Hominoids
Reported from throughout the continent
Heuvelmans 1986

Large Hominoids
Reported from Sudan, Zaire, Kenya, and Cameroons
Heuvelmans 1986

Large Bipedal Primates: fating'ho, wokolo
Reported from Senegal
Shuker 1998c

Giant Bushbaby
Reported from Casamance Forest, Senegal; Ivory Coast
Shuker 1998c

Wolf-like Animal
Established to be the African hunting dog (Lycaon pictus)?
Reported from the Sahara Desert
Heuvelmans 1986

Bear: Dwarf bear
Reported from the mountains of Rif, Morocco
Heuvelmans 1986

Bear: Atlas Bear
Sporadic reports from northern Africa
Shuker 1997

Nandi "Bear": Hyena, chalicothere, ratel, etc.
Reported from East Africa
Heuvelmans 1986, Shuker 1997; Shuker 1995b

Giant "Hyena": Booa
Reported from Senegal
Shuker 1998c

Felines: Anomalous lions
Black, red, green and white lions, etc.
Reported sporadically from many areas
Heuvelmans 1986; Shuker 1989

Felines: Anomalous leopards
Possibly pseudomelanistic leopards
Reported widely, especially from Aberdares (Kenya) and Uganda
Shuker 1998d

Feline: Spotted Lion
Reported from the mountain forests of Cameroons, CAR, Uganda, Rwanda, Kenya, and Ethiopia.
Heuvelmans 1986; Shuker 1989

Feline: Ikimizi and similar cats (leopard/lion-like)
Reported from Rwanda, Cameroons, East Africa, Ethiopia, CAR, etc.
Shuker 1989

Feline: Giant grey-striped cat (Mngwa, nunda, etc.)
Reported from Tanzania
Heuvelmans 1986; Shuker 1989

Feline: Sabre-toothed cats, Aquatic habitats
Reported from Gabon, Angola, Zaire, Zambia, Kenya, Sudan, and CAR
Heuvelmans 1986; Shuker 1995b; Shuker 1989

Feline: Sabre-toothed cats, Mountainous habitats
Reported from CAR, Chad, French Equatorial Africa
Heuvelmans 1986; Shuker 1995b; Shuker 1989

Feline: "Lions"
Reported from Madagascar
Shuker 1989

Feline: Qattara cheetah
Reported from Egypt
Shuker 1998d

Pygmy Elephant
Reported from Equatorial Africa
Heuvelmans 1986

Water Elephant
Reported from French Congo
Shuker 1995b

Pygmy forest rhinoceros (surviving ceratopsids, etc.)
Reported from Liberia, Cameroons, Gabon, and the middle Congo river
Heuvelmans 1986; Mackal 1987

Madagascan dwarf hippo: Kilopilopitsofy
Reported from Madagascar
Shuker 2000a

Quagga: surviving remnants
Reported from Namibia (South West Africa)
Heuvelmans 1986

Hyrax-like animal
Reported from Ethiopia
Heuvelmans 1986

Sirenians: Unknown species
Reported from Lake Tana, Ethiopia; Lake Chad and Lake Yoan, Chad
Huevelmans 1986

Aquatic "mermaid": Mamba mutu
Reported from Burundi [Lake Tanganyika and Lukuga River]
Postulated as possible sirenian or otter
Shuker 1998d

"Sea Elephant"
Reported from coast of Gambia
Shuker 1998c

Gazelle: Reddish-gray animal
Reported from Farasan Islands in the Red Sea
Bille 1995

Gazelle: Unknown species
Reported from Forrur Island in the Persian Gulf
Bille 1995

Deer: unknown species
Reported from Ethiopia
Heuvelmans 1986

Spotted bushbuck antelope
Reported from Liberia
Heuvelmans 1986

Bat: "Death birds"
Reported from near Lekempti, Ethiopia
Reported to feed on blood of cows
Shuker 1997

Bat: Unidentified microchiropteran
Reported in Kenya
Noted for its daytime hiding place — piles of dry elephant dung
Shuker 1998d

Bat-like animal: guiafairo
Reported from Senegal/Gambia
Shuker 1998c

Bird: Makalala (giant flightless predatory bird)
Reported from Central Africa
Shuker 1996

Bird: Green "turaco" with very little red on its wings
Reported from Kigezi, Uganda
Coleman 1988

Bird: large all-black swift
Reported from Marsabit Mountain, Kenya
Coleman 1988

Bird: grey long-tailed w/ red/chestnut under tail-coverts
Reported from Mathews Range, Kenya
Coleman 1988

Bird: large black fowl with red beak/legs
Reported formerly from Zululand, South Africa
Shuker 2000b

Bird: Undescribed form of stone partridge
Reported from Senegal
Shuker 1998d

Bird: Undescribed gallinule
Reported from the Sudd
Shuker 1998d

Giant "Owl": kikiyaon
Reported from Senegal/Gambia
Shuker 1998c

Reported from Drakensberg Range, South Africa
Shuker 1997

Lizard: Seven-foot monitor, unknown species
Reported from former French Cameroons
Bille 1995

Flying "Lizards" (Pterosaurs, Giant Bats)
Reported from Zimbabwe, Zambia, Zaire, East Africa, Cameroons, and Ghana
Heuvelmans 1986; Heuvelmans 1996

Winged Serpent
Reported from Namibia
Shuker 1996

Pterosaur-like animal
Reported from Asteroussia Mountains, Crete
Shuker 1997

Dinosaurs: Sauropods
Reported from Gabon, the Congo, and Central African Republic
Heuvelmans 1986

Snake-like Animals
Reported from Upper Nile swamps and Lake Victoria
Heuvelmans 1986

Snake-like "dinosaurs"
Reported from Congo Republic, Sudan, and other countries
Mackal 1987

Lake Monster: "Long-necked Sea-lion"
Reported from Orange River and Vaal River tributaries, South Africa
Heuvelmans 1986

Dimetrodon-like animal
Reported from Rift Valley, Kenya
Shuker 1998

Snakes: Giant snakes (Pumina)
Reported from Zaire
Heuvelmans 1986

Snakes: Giant snakes
Reported from eastern Morocco and Tunisia
Heuvelmans 1986

Snakes: Crowing crested snakes
Reported from CAR, Congo, and other parts of tropical Africa
Heuvelmans 1986; Shuker 1991

Giant tortoise
Reported from southwest Madagascar
Eberhart 2002

Frog with a luminous nose
Reported from northern Cameroon
Shuker 1998

White frog
Reported from Mutanda, Rwanda
Shuker 1998

Fish: Unknown small, black, venomous species
Reported from Shatt al Arab River in Iran
Shuker 1998d

Giant "slug": Mulilo
Reported from Zaire and Zambia
Shuker 1997

Long-snouted Moth
Hypothesized from Madagascar
Bille 1995

Giant spider (as large as a human pygmy)
Reported from Zaire swamp
Shuker 1998

Cryptozoology: Science and Speculation

Historical Bigfoot Stories

Big Snakes

Great Sea-Serpent

Sea Monsters Unmasked

Blue Tiger

Catching Wild Animals

Lesser Known Mystery Animals

Lake Champlain Mystery

Missionaries and Monsters

Cryptobotany Fiction